United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM)

UNIFEM South Asia Office


Analysis of the Laws Related to Trafficking and Sexual Exploitation against Women and Children in Bangladesh - Bangladesh National Women Lawyers Association (BNWLA), 2004:


This study reviewed existing anti-trafficking laws in Bangladesh and identified gaps and recommendations on the legal framework and its implementation, focusing on inter-agency coordination and making legal proceedings more victim-sensitive.





Traffic in persons for commercial sexual exploitation: Legislation, role and effectiveness of the law enforcement and law adjudication machinery - Lawyers’ Collective, India, 2003:

This study analyzed the legal basis for prosecuting trafficking cases in India and highlighted obstacles identified by law enforcement in the investigation of inter-state and inter-country trafficking cases. Recommendations include using criminal law, rather than prostitution laws, to prosecute traffickers and strengthening cooperation among authorities and NGO to protect the rights of trafficked persons.




Effectiveness of Existing Laws and Institutional Mechanism to Combat Trafficking in Women and Children in Nepal - Forum for Women, Law and Development (FWLD), 2002:

This study reviews and identifies gaps in existing anti-trafficking law and policies in Nepal, with a focus on the prosecution and adjudication of suspect traffickers. Findings include low numbers of trafficking cases filed with the police, weak capacities of government attorneys and deficiencies in the collection and presentation of evidence in trafficking cases. Recommendations focus on developing a rights-based and comprehensive response to trafficking, building the capacity of law enforcement and making the criminal justice system more responsive to victims.





Study on Female Trafficking – MARGA, Sri Lanka,2004:

This study highlights the root causes and mechanisms of trafficking, with a focus on trafficking in women for the purpose of forced labor, both within Sri Lanka and from Sri Lanka to the Gulf countries. It analyses the legal and administrative framework to address trafficking and its application in practice, Recommendations include empowering women through capacity building and income-generation and supporting trafficked women through adequate shelter, legal aid and counseling.





Trafficking in Women in Orissa - Institute for Socio Economic Development (ISED), 2002:

This report addresses the root causes of trafficking in women from the state of Orissa, India to different parts of India and highlights the socio-economic status of trafficked women. In spite of a high concentration of scheduled tribes population in the state, who, due their marginalized status are prone to exploitation, it was found that a comparatively low number of trafficked women are from tribal populations. The majority come from poor and landless families and lack information about trafficking. The study recommends supporting generation of income for women and their family members through providing employment opportunities at the local level and training to build their livelihood skills, as well as raising awareness on trafficking among stakeholders and community members.




Trafficking in Women and Children in India,
is a national level action research, supported by UNIFEM in collaboration with the National Human Rights Commission (NHRC), the Department of Women and Child Development, the Institute of Social Sciences, (ISS), and USAID. It has been published by Orient Longman.


Description: This is a national level study to assess the nature and dimension of trafficking in women and children. The need for this study arose from the fact that there was no validated baseline data which could be effectively used to inform and guide policy and programmes to combat trafficking of women and children. The key objective of the research was to define broad but applicable trends that are influencing factors in perpetuating trafficking, both on the supply as well as the demand side. Undertaking a vulnerability mapping, it considers the nature of response to address the problem; it also seeks to arrive at an understanding of the ‘demand’ aspect of this crime and human rights violation.


The Report can be useful in assisting the enactment of proper comprehensive legislation to target traffickers and in providing for rescue and rehabilitation programmes for the victims and survivors.


The report can also lead to proper policies and comprehensive laws for the apprehension, prosecution and punishment of traffickers, and proper action at the government, as well as the NGO level, to prevent trafficking.


The recommendations of the action research calls for rights based, gender sensitive and age disaggregated response by law enforcement agencies, the judiciary and civil society organizations to issues related to victims and survivors and vulnerable groups of women and children.


Trafficking - Women and Children for Sexual Exploitation – Handbook for Law Enforcement Agencies in India by Mr. P.M. Nair of the Indian Police Service is a part of UNIFEM’s regional programme in India, Sri Lanka and Nepal, for training of the police on rights-based enforcement systems and victim/survivor sensitive justice delivery with regard to judicial officers.    

Description: The Handbook is an attempt to empower response agencies with the required knowledge, skill and attitude. User-friendly and comprehensive, it provides an appropriate reference book and a handy tool for law enforcement agency officials, particularly when officers need to apply existing laws. At the same time, it provides an orientation to the processes involved in trafficking, available legalities, scope of existing laws and sensitized application of the same. The Manual clarifies concepts pertaining to trafficking, debunks myths and contributes towards building larger committed constituencies and partnerships for providing protection to women and children from trafficking and the resultant abuse and exploitation. 


Sounds of Silence, by Dr. Achal Bhagat of SARTHAK

Description: This is a Manual for forming therapeutic relationships, directed towards addressing the psycho-social problems that victims/survivors of trafficking may face. It is an introduction to basic psychotherapeutic skills for forming a relationship with adolescent survivors of commercial sexual exploitation, presenting a holistic counseling module.  


Organizations Working against Human Trafficking and Related Issues – A Resource Directory prepared by Dr. Aparna Srivastava of the Anti Trafficking Network, with its secretariat at Joint Women’s Programme (JWP). It is part of UNIFEM’s South Asia Regional Anti Trafficking Programme supported by USAID.  

Description: The Directory is the outcome of a systematic and planned survey of various organizations that are working against human trafficking and commercial and sexual exploitation of women and children. These organizations have varied programmes to improve the quality of life of persons in difficult circumstances, providing alternative opportunities to these people. The Directory provides a comprehensive account of the nature and magnitude of services provided for victims of trafficking and prostitution, by organizations in this area of concern. It also serves as a platform for representatives of organizations, civil society and government officials to know about expertise, experience and interventions in this area.



Human Trafficking with Special Reference to Delhi – A Study: by Dr. Aparna Srivastava. A William Carey Study and Research Centre and Joint Women’s Programme publication, it has been supported by UNIFEM’s South Asia Regional Anti Trafficking Programme and USAID.  

Description:  The Study takes within its ambit, not only the plight of women in prostitution but also various other purposes for which trafficking of women and children take place, such as begging and forced labour. One of the major concerns of the Study was to zero in on the problem of trafficking of children for prostitution, begging, labour, adoption, organ transplant and other purposes. The Study is significant in that it attempts to gauge the magnitude of the problem of trafficking, which can only be addressed by a network of organizations working for the protection and promotion of the human rights of the persons affected.


Rescuing Child Labourers prepared by Equitable Tourism Options (Equations) and Association for Promoting Social Action (APSA) with support from UNIFEM South Asia Regional Office and USAID (2004)

Description: This Report is an analysis of the operation undertaken to rescue children trafficked to labour in the jewellery units of Karnataka. It compiles documentation on the raid and rescue operation undertaken to rescue 104 children from the residential, small-scale jewellery units of Nagarathpet, Bangalore, in Karnataka. These children had been trafficked from the rural districts of West Bengal. Based on an analysis of the child labour rescue practices observed during the process, a framework for conducting rescue operations in a child-sensitive manner, involving various stakeholders has been devised. The report hopes to invite greater reflection on the prevailing methodology for rescue and post-rescue operations and a clearer delineation of the roles and responsibilities of various stakeholders. It helps develop rescue and post-rescue guidelines with in-built monitoring mechanisms for effective rehabilitation of child labourers.


From Darkness to Light by the Institute of Juvenile Justice, the apex unit of Prayas, in collaboration with UNIFEM

Description:  The Report captures the Regional Consultation on Trafficking of Women and Children and Law Enforcement held in New Delhi in February 2001. It outlines the context and objectives of the Consultation, which stress the need to exchange relevant information amongst the police, judiciary, NGOs, media and government organizations, while strengthening linkages previously established. It highlights the need to establish inter-state and inter-departmental linkages within government and to create conditions conducive for undertaking rescue and rehabilitation work apart from strengthening the loose governmental network. It places emphasis on the necessity of undertaking projects in border areas and prostitution prone areas, in order to assess the existing situation and formulate appropriate strategies. Containing an introduction to Prayas and sharing information on UNIFEM, the Report presents the current scenario with regard to trafficking. It shares the backdrop of the Consultation and its proceedings and recommendations.

A Trainer’s Guide on the Prevention of Human Trafficking – a publication of the South Asia Partnership Sri Lanka (SAPSRI) in partnership with UNIFEM and USAID  and The American Centre for International Labour Solidarity (ACILS) (2003 – ISBN 955-8899-00-3)

Description: This Manual has been prepared to share the learnings of the South Asia Partnership Sri Lanka with other organizations working towards the prevention of human trafficking. It is the result of a series of practical training programmes conducted by SAPSRI. The Manual introduces a very participatory, user-friendly training module, tailor made to suit even rural environments and which can easily be adapted by South Asian organizations. The trainings are not gender specific, the purpose being to educate female and male adults and children on the subject of human trafficking, highlighting the fact that anybody could become a victim of trafficking unless they are made aware of the problem.


Trafficking in Women in Orissa – An Exploratory Study by Balaji Pandey, Damodar Jena and Sugata Mohanty of the Institute for Socio-Economic Development, Bhubaneswar in collaboration with UNIFEM’s South Asia Regional Anti Trafficking Programme supported by USAID

Description: This Study on trafficking is one of the very few studies that have been undertaken in Orissa, particularly at the micro level, to map areas in Orissa where trafficking in women is rampant. Despite the difficulties encountered in tracing the overall socio-economic background of victims and the households from where they are bought, the study identifies the sources and factors responsible for such trafficking. It studies the socio-economic status of the victims of trafficking and explores means for their rehabilitation. Making available an additional resource for planners, activists and researchers, the Study suggests measures to check the menace. It is based on both primary and secondary sources of information, and has been successful in locating and identifying as many as 559 cases of trafficking. Out of these 308 are categorized as direct cases (women who were found to have been bought and sold beyond any doubt), and the remaining 251 as indirect cases (those who were assumed to be vulnerable to trafficking.